What is CBD? As research grows, many of us may be familiar with the term but are unsure of what that exactly means. CBD stands for cannabidiol, an active compound found in the cannabis sativa, commonly known as the hemp, plant. There are over 113 of these known compounds that are specific to cannabis known as cannabinoids. CBD accounts for up to 40% of the hemp plants extract. Many of these cannabinoids have documented medical benefits, CBD included. They bind to receptor sites located within your body and work together to regulate a wide variety of ailments and disorders. 

How CBD works: CBD helps to regulate homeostasis, or balance, within your body. Homeostasis is defined as: "The tendency of the body to seek and maintain a condition of balance or equilibrium within its internal environment, even when faced with external changes. A simple example of homeostasis is the body's ability to maintain an internal temperature around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, whatever the temperature outside."  CBD maintains homeostasis by binding to receptor sites located on the cells of your major organs and neurological receptors. Upon binding to these sites, it stimulates receptors in your brain that signal electrical currents to the site of the irregularity in your system, so that your body can heal itself from within. These sites are a part of a system that is spread all throughout your body, known as the Endocannabinoid system 

Endocannabinoid System: The endocannabinoid system is a series of cell receptors located throughout your internal systems that respond to certain types of agonists in our bodies. It works to maintain homeostasis or balance within your body. This system is made up of two different receptors types known as CB1 & CB2 Receptors that work together to regulate your body's internal systems.  

What are CB1 and CB2 receptors? 

CB1 receptors are found in our central nervous system, brain, digestive tracts and muscle tissues. These work to regulate the activity of plasma membrane proteins while enzymes signal transduction pathways. THC binds to one's CB1 receptors when they signal distress. CB2 receptors are found in the immune system and are located on immune cells.  These work to signal transduction pathways and organs, these receptors are primarily expressed by leukocytes, or the cells in our immune systems that protect us against infections. CBN, an anti-inflammatory and convulsant will respond to CB2 receptors when they signal distress. 

CBD does not fit directly into either CB1 or CB2 receptors, instead it works with both your CB1 and CB2 receptors. However, the relationship is different than those between THC and CB1 receptors and CBN and CB2 receptors. 

Cannabinoids: Endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids. Whats the Difference?! 

Humans produce endocannabinoids, while plants produce phytocannabinoids. The same chemicals can be found in both systems and the only true difference between the two are the cannabinoids found within each system. For instance, humans naturally produce cannabinoids such as 2-AG and anandamide, while plants naturally produce cannabinoids such as CBD and CBG. 

How does my Endocannabinoid system work? 

The role of endocannabinoid system is to regulate homeostasis, or balance. The endocannabinoid system responds to illness, pain and varying disorders through signals given off by receptors that are needing help. An example of this relationship could be looked at in the form of a tumor where the cells are not reacting to the signal die. The signal for the cell to die comes from the endocannabinoid system. In order for this cell to receive the signal, it needs to be exposed to cannabinoids, which targets the location and specific cells that need to die; in this instance, similar to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Another way of looking at this relationship could be epilepsy and seizure disorders. Seizures are often referred to as being akin to an electrical storm in the brain. Cannabinoids signal help to calm the storm so one no longer experience convulsant like symptoms. 

Anandamide and 2-AG are naturally produced by our body's endocannabinoid system.  However, this only happens when the cannabinoids are demanded from the body, therefore, the more cannabinoids that are added to the body, the more these natural cannabinoids will be produced. Unfortunately, when they are released, the FAAH enzyme will break down anandamide much more quickly, causing those beneficial effects to not be felt in their highest form. However, CBD helps to inhibit the FAAH enzyme breakdowns of anandamide, allowing it to treat the signaled area. Anandamide can be found in higher concentrations of the body, activating CB1 receptors and binding to CB2 receptors, trigging the body's natural protective endocannabinoid response helping to treat issues such as appetite dysfunction and regulation. While 2-AG can be found in higher concentration of the central nervous system, or brain, that activated CB1 and CB2 receptors helping to treat immune system deficiencies and pain.  
 

Endocannabinoid System Deficiencies When the body fails to produce sufficient cannabinoids, your endocannabinoid system is considered to be deficient. Many ailments such as Crohns disease or IBS can sometimes be attributed to an overactive FAAH enzyme, which as we just learned, can happen when anadamide is released. By adding additional cannabinoids to the body, like CBD, the FAAH enzyme is inhibited, allowing for the cannabinoids both found naturally in your body, and introduced, to do their job. 

Where does CBD come from? For our purposes, CBD is extracted from the cannabis sativa L plant, more specifically the industrial Hemp plants.  
 

Difference between Hemp and Marijuana: 

THC vs CBD: The first key difference between hemp and marijuana are the CBD and THC contents. Both plants come from the cannabis sativa L plant, however hemp contains 0.3% THC while marijuana is considered to be any cannabis plant containing 0.3%THC or more.   

Psychoactivity: Hemp and CBD products derived from hemp are completely NON-psychotropic, meaning they cannot at all get you high. While CBD has no psychotropic abilities, THC does not even become psychoactive until it reaches a threshold of 5%. This means that even when consuming hemp products containing THC, there is still no chance of getting "high". 

 Is CBD Legal? YES! YES! YES! Thanks to the 2014 Agricultural Act(Farm bill), industrial hemp again became federally legal to grow and process! This made it possible for the growing and selling hemp legal federally for states that establish regulatory regimes or pilot programs. In 2015 the Omnibus Spending Law was passed and prohibits federal interference with state-authorized hemp pilot projects and interstate transfer of hemp products. These Acts and bills essentially federally defunded the DEA and other agencies or entities from interfering with the hemp trade, and why?  

CBD for our purposes is derived from Industrial hemp not marijuana 

Industrial hemp comes from the cannabis sativa plant 

Industrial hemp is cannabis sativa that is tested at 1% THC or LOWER for purposes such as making hemp fiber or plastics. 

Industrial hemp used for therapeutic purposes is tested at .3% THC  

Marijuana comes from both the cannabis sativa and cannabis indica plants. There are many organizations that would argue both of these are the same thing, just different strains or varieties.  

Any cannabis sativa product tested at concentrations higher than 1% THC is considered medical marijuana while any cannabis sativa product tested at 5% and higher can be classified as recreational marijuana. 

 

Laws that passed making industrial hemp legal 

2014 Farm Bill Act, Section 7606 

Congressional act passed every eight years 

Section 7606 is the only federal hemp legislation that includes "floral extracts (flower)" in the definition 

The flower being the only part of the hemp plant where CBD is produced 

Section 7606 is the only federal hemp legislation that eliminates cultivated hemp and related hemp products from the definition of the Controlled Substance Act  

Under the program, the growing of hemp is not considered as growing marijuana 

Legally grown hemp through Section 7606 does not fall under the jurisdiction of the DEA 

Agencies have to follow congressional ruling despite DEA's attempts to pass contradictory acts as they cannot counter congress -- as confirmed by the Acting Head of the DEA at a Congressional hearing in April of 2017 

Omnibus Appropriations Act 

Budgetary act passed every year 

Prohibits use of federal funds to stop processing, transport, sale and use of industrial hemp grown in the grown in the United States under the 2014 Farm Bill Act 

NC SB 313 

Passed on October 31, 2015 

Recognizes the importance and legitimacy of industrial hemp research in compliance with portions of the 2014 Farm Bill Act and to help bolster North Carolina's agriculture employment 

Formation of the Industrial Hemp Commission began in North Carolina 

NC HB 92 

Passed on July 11, 2016 

Expanded the membership of the Industrial Hemp Commission through granting the Commission rulemaking authority, stipulation industrial hemp research programming must be done conjunction by State and land grant universities, authorizing licenses and research purposes, create civil penalties as necessary, and amending the state's definition of marijuana to allow for production of industrial hemp 

Conclusion that as long as the CBD product is derived from industrial hemp, it is completely legal. 

 

CBD and Wellness: 

The clinical studies and University research articles are endless. While it remains unregulated by the FDA and is still considered on its own a dietary supplement, CBD has shown time and time again to be beneficial in relieving the effects of array of ailments and diseases. 

CBD has been shown to be a:  

Anticonvulsant 

Neuroprotectant 

Antioxidant 

Analgesic 

Antipsychotic 

Antiemetic 

Anti-Inflammatory 

Anti-Anxiety 

Anti-Depressant 

Because of these benefits, many people are turning from their traditional pharmaceutical medications to a more natural option. 

Drug interactions: Unlike all pharmaceutical medications, CBD has NO lethal dose and in turn also has no actual overdose. However it is important to consider several medication interactions when taking CBD. Because CBD works to regulate your internal systems, it can be beneficial in managing blood pressure or blood sugars. CBD can also be used as an anticonvulsant. The same enzyme, 2-C19 that breaks down cannabinoids also plays a role in the metabolizing of epileptic medications. If already prescribed a medication that manages any of these things, consider spreading your CBD dosing out several hours from your regular blood sugar/pressure or anti-epileptic or anticonvulsant medications. Taking too much CBD can cause one to feel sleepy without any heavily sedating effects. Because of this it is also considered to be beneficial for sleep. Unless otherwise trying to combat sleep disturbances with CBD, becoming sleepy after consuming a larger amount will let you know when you have dosed too much.  

 

CBD Dosing: 

A large part of dosing will be conditional to what types of CBD products you have purchased and will vary depending on each individual case. When determining dosing there are a few very important things to remember:  

Less is more! It’s favorable to start small when introducing any new CBD product to your body. This is true of both new and regular CBD users.  

Always remember to choose a quality product! There are several different ways to extract CBD and several different types of CBD products. Always make sure to choose an extraction method or CBD type that is best suited for what you are trying to treat. CBD can come in full spectrum vs. Isolated forms and some companies may carry products richer in some cannabinoids more than others.  

Stick to the same quantity and method for a few days before changing! Many people have a deficient endocannabinoid system or are not already consuming cannabis products. Because of this, it is important to give your body an opportunity to absorb CBD into your system so that it can build up a distributable amount.  

 

Buying Quality CBD products: 

Extractions: There are several different extraction methods when obtaining CBD from the Hemp Plant. While some methods include using a solvent such as alcohol or ethanol to extract cannabinoids, this may leave some of that solvent in the product. More quality CBD products are extracted and obtained without using any solvents or heat so that the purity of the product remains unharmed and unblemished. CO2 and Critical CO2 extractions use carbon dioxide, which do not require heat so that the end product remains authentic. This is also true of cold oil pressed products.   

Lab verified: It's important that companies remain transparent with what they are selling and what you are investing in. One thing to remember is to always assure that the company you purchase your products from provides quality assurance of their items via lab testing. It is paramount to protect yourself from products that may contain additives or synthetics.  

THC vs THC free?: This will be entirely dependent on you! While held to the standard of 0.3% THC or less, hemp CBD products are completely non-psychotropic. Depending on what you are seeking to treat, you may want a product with THC in it. For example, the higher CBD varieties are generally preferred among those seeking relief from seizures, while those treating pain might lean towards a product containing THC.  

Purchasing the right type of product for you! When purchasing a quality CBD product, be sure that you're getting the right product for you. While some products are better for chronic use, other items such as topicals can be great for situational or infrequently occurring use as well as concurrent use.  

Do your research: If you have the option, step into, or call a CBD dispensary. This is your best bet when trying to find what product is best for you. Dispensary employees will be well versed in the types of CBD products out there and what the best options are for specific concerns. There are endless research studies and articles online as well as many other resources for those trying to find the product that best works for them.  

 

Types of CBD products: 

Edibles 


The world of CBD edibles is quite expansive. These can range from CBD infused snacks, capsules, food/drink powders or fare that has been baked with CBD oils/butters. Many companies will offer assorted candies, savory foods, gel capsules or baked goods. Similar to all CBD products the extraction methods used for the CBD in each edible will differ depending on each company.  

Why use edibles: 

Kids! Not every child may be old enough or have the taste for a capsule or a tincture. Often times they may not want to hold something under their tongue for an extended period. However, many of the gummy, baked or other edible varieties are great for enticing a less than eager child to ingest their dose.  Much like with all other CBD products, there are also THC free options as well for any parents initially concerned with a product containing THC.   

Longevity! While they take a bit longer to work via the digestive system, many people choose edibles for their longer lasting effects throughout the body. This is often true of those who may have to consume larger quantities of CBD. Edibles can be a great way to ingest a large amount of CBD that metabolizes slower.  

Preventative! Edibles are also a great way to dose as a preventative! Similar to taking a regular tincture dose, capsules and edibles can be a great way to consume an exact amount daily as a preventative for certain ailments and symptoms.  

On the go! Edibles are a great option for those who may not use CBD regularly but have situational issues in which they consume. They often come in individual and multi-packaged options and so can be great to grab for on the go use. Some examples of this are exam anxiety, airplane rides, sports meetings etc. Edibles can be a great way to not purchase an entire product to use and still be able to consume a concentrated amount.  

Digestive system-receptors. Ailments related to the digestive tract such as IBS, Crohns and IBD can sometimes be best treated directly via the receptors in the gut.   

CBD inhibits the FAAH enzyme and helps to slow the processes of digestion, stops the restriction of the small intestine and increases the production of anandamide.  

When CBD is digested via an edible, it can more directly access the receptors in your gut and can occasionally be a preferred ingestion method for these particular ailments.  

 

Topicals


Topicals are a transdermal meaning they are applied on the skin and absorbed through the epidermis, ultimately reaching your CB2 receptors. This is another beneficial delivery option for absorbing CBD in localized areas. Much like many other medications, CBD can be delivered to localized areas via gels, salves, topical oils, patches, scrubs, bath products and lotions.  

Why use topicals: 

Stay local! These are great for treating pain and inflammation in localized areas. 

Skin Disorders. Because CBD is beneficial in relieving the effects of autoimmune problems, it can be exceptional at treating the effects of various skin concerns such as psoriasis. 

Concurrent use! CBD topicals can be a wonderful way to supplement the use of other ingestible options that treat from within. If you have a particularly difficult sore spot, using a topical on that area may just do the trick.  

Preventative! Many people enjoy using patches when preparing for a rather physically strenuous day. This is another topical option that you can apply before physical activities to regulate inflammation in a particular localized area over a longer period of time.  

 
Vapor products 


Vapor is an efficient way to get lower concentrations, in a direct, fast acting method. Vapor is inhaled via a device often known as a vaporizer. There are several types of vaporizers and vapor options. These are commonly known as vapor pens, mods or dab pens (meaning a "dab"of CBD concentrate.) They are usually a compact and portable heating source that can heat specially formulated CBD concentrations or oils to a temperature that changes it to vapor that can be inhaled. Many of these devices control can control the temperature and voltage of your vapor to make for an enjoyable and fast acting experience.   

Why use vapor products: 

Fast Acting! Vapor can have a quicker acting effect as it is absorbed directly into the bloodstream when inhaled into the lungs. This can be great for someone needing a more rapid acting dose.  

Convenient! Using vapor products can be great for on the go use. Vapor products and pens are seen almost everywhere these days and are a quick and convenient way to administer CBD.  

Concurrent! Vapor products are wonderful for concurrent use with another product taken for chronic use such as tinctures or capsules. While you may prefer to take a larger dose in the morning/evening or both, vapor is an option for administering small amounts of CBD directly throughout the day.  

Options! Because there are so many different forms of CBD that can be vaporized, this also affords lots of options! With dab or concentrate products, many companies will offer a wide variety of flavors, textures and concentrations of CBD. With the vapor oil products, these too can be offered in flavored varieties or additives that you can supplement into a preexisting vapor fluid. The options with customizing vapor can seem endless!  

 
Tinctures 


While historically tinctures were alcohol based and are still accepted as a suitable carrier method today, it can be important to consider higher quality carrier substances when choosing a CBD oil. MCT (medium chain triglycerides), grapeseed, olive and hemp oils are more easily absorbed through the mucous and stomach membranes. Because of this, they can to some be considered a superior delivery process in the world of purchasing a high-quality tincture. Many CBD companies will offer their tinctures with one of the oils mentioned above in varying concentrations and flavors. Tincture doses are administered sublingually. This means that they are placed under the tongue and held for 30-60 seconds so they can absorb into the mucous membranes and blood vessels located under the tongue.  

Why use tinctures:  

Great for getting perfect dosing. Tinctures most often come in a 30mL container with a 1mL dropper. As long as you know the concentration of CBD in your whole tincture you can get a perfectly measured dose. For example, if you bought a 30mL bottle of CBD at a concentration of 500mg, then each individual mL has around 16.6mg of CBD in it. If you take half a mL you have around 8.3mg so on and so forth. This can often help get a perfect dose. This prevents being stuck at a dose as is with some edible options or the inability to accurately measure dose as is with some vapor or topical options.  

Consistency. When dosing with tincture, you know exactly how much you are getting each time.  

Quicker delivery. Unlike with edible options, tinctures are faster acting as they absorb directly into the bloodstream via oral administration. This can be preferred for people who are looking to seek quicker relief.  

 

This vs That 

Hemp oil vs CBD oil 


Hemp oil is nutritional, CBD is used more for therapeutic and healing purposes. 

Nutritional hemp oil is extracted from the seed to make a cooking oil similar to olive or avocado oil. Because it is extracted from the hemp seed and not from the flower, the amount of CBD or cannabinoids in hemp seed oil is barely even trace. However, hemp seed oil strengthens and contributes to one's health in a variety of ways. Hemp Seed oil is protein and fiber rich, vegan and allergen and gluten free product. It contains all nine amino acids known to enhance blood flow and maintain optimal blood pressure while signaling muscle cells to relax and freeing arteries of plaque. Hemp seed contains Vitamin E, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Zinc, Magnesium, Sulfur and Phosphate and is rich in Omega 3-s and Omega 6 fatty acids with roughly 40% more Omega-3s than in raw tuna. 

CBD Oil is rich in CBD and other cannabinoids that have been extracted from the cannabis sativa(hemp)plant and suspended in a carrier oil such as olive, grape, hemp or MCT oils. They frequently come in varying concentrations and THC containing or non-THC varieties.  

Full spectrum vs isolate 

Full spectrum is going to be a product that’s extraction method gives it a wider abundance of naturally occurring cannabinoids. These are generally extracted via the CO2 or cold oil press processes.  

Isolate involves extraction and isolation of the CBD compound to purity. This is a 99% pure CBD only product.  

 

CBD and Pets 

Just like humans, almost any animal with a spine and central nervous system has an endocannabinoid system. This means that they too have CB1 receptors located in their brain and CB2 receptors located throughout their bodies. Their naturally occurring mediating cannabinoids are also anandamide and 2-AG. The key difference with our animal friends is that they are particularly sensitive to THC-Delta-9, the psychoactive molecule in hemp or marijuana. Animals lack the ability to process it appropriately. This is important when choosing a product for your pet. It is preferred that you choose a THC or low THC variety, which is why at 0.3%, hemp products can be great for relieving your pet of a multitude of problems. Some of these issues include but are not limited to: 

Anxiety (Separation, Car, Storm, General, Etc.) 

Hyperactivity/Inattention  

Hip Dysplasia 

Arthritis 

Behavior/Training Aid 

Digestive Supplement 

 

Where Do I Get CBD? 

Now that you're equipped with the information you need and you're ready to purchase a quality CBD product, where do you go? The Hemp Farmacy is a CBD specific dispensary, based out of, but not exclusive to Wilmington North Carolina. We have made it our mission to provide quality CBD products sourced within the United States at a reasonable and competitive price point. We provide quality assured lab testing and each one of our tenders have been thoroughly educated in order to provide a pleasurable and satisfactory experience.  

The Hemp Education Loft

+1.910.399.2587

DOWNTOWN Wilmington

​​HEMP FARMACY

We are very excited to announce not only a new NC Apprentice Program but also a new Medical Symposium Schedule and a physician driven medical hemp education program - Integrated Hemp Solutions. 

Welcome to the Education Division of The Hemp Farmacy.  We are excited to announce major changes to our education program for the 2018 season.  Through the past 16 months bringing free education classes sponsored by Hempleton Investment Group to the public and farmers, we have reached a demand for more in depth education curriculum.  We ran a short season of the NC Hemp Apprentice Program in the Fall .  Hosted by The NC Hemp Farm our Research and Innovation Campus to develop feedback on a more detailed idea of what we needed to offer for this new program.  

NEW LOCATION+1.910 684-4002

695 South Bennett Street, Southern Pines, NC 28387 

                           +1.910.769.2891

COLLEGE RD WILMINGTON

A little Hemp Education Primer!